The subject of this year's special exhibition is "Computers and Music".
The following exhibitions have been registered:
If one wanted to have a compact and powerful computer in 1988 for industrial control for which plenty of software was available, one couldn’t just get a Raspberry Pi. But there was a product from IBP, a small German company, that re-implemented an Atari Mega ST on three euro-boards in combination with an industrial bus and special features sought after in this field. Combined with a license, they sold this setup as the 190ST. This exhibition shows a running IBP 190ST, which was used for controlling a disco laser. Fritz Hohl
The Sinclair ZX Spectrum was the British answer to the Commodore C64 and has just celebrated its 40th birthday this year. Sold in 1982 for 125 British pounds with 16kB of RAM (compared to 399 pounds for the C64), it soon became popular despite a cassette player and TV screen having been the only peripherals at the time. It also owes its popularity to plenty of software and because it was based on a Zilog-Z80 processor, which was also widely cloned in Eastern Europe, e.g. in Eastern Germany. Not requiring special circuitry limited the sound and video capabilities, but enabled easy reproductions, which lead to many clones of this home computer in Eastern Europe. This resulted in a very active programmer scene, which, even up to today, brings the screen to life with almost impossible creations. In the meantime there are many modern interfaces and extensions, such as memory cards as well as disk-, joystick- and network interfaces. In recent years, it has become possible to create 100% compatible clones, as the logical array (ULA) of the ZX spectrum has been reverse engineered. This gave rise to the ‘Harlequin’, which has since been rebuilt several hundred times, which demonstrates the attractiveness of the concept. In the meantime, there have been two Kickstarter projects to create the "ZX Spectrum Next" with an authentic casing and perfected interior that is not emulated. One machine based on the original campaign will be on display and a group of computer clubs keeps the little Briton alive. The exhibitors are members of the Spectrum User Club Stuttgart (SUC), which also organizes an annual user meeting in Wittenberg. Norbert Opitz, Ingo Truppel and Sandra Truppel
There are voices in politics and society who demand more digital sovereignty for Germany and Europe. This includes research and development of software and hardware, and should reduce the dependency of external sources and global supply chains at a time when the scarcity of chips is still perceived as an urgent problem. In the past, however, there were already companies in Germany and Europe that developed their own complete supply chain and related know-how for the development and production of digital computers, components and infrastructures. This exhibition and the corresponding talk will show impressive early computer families, the TELEFUNKEN TR 8 and the AEG 80. The Telefunken TR 84 will be shown in this exhibition, which was developed starting from 1967. Based on 18-bit ECL technology, it was freely programmable and was used by the Germany army for artillery and weather calculations. Later, this model was developed into the AEG 80/20 and the MR8020 by ATM. Both computers are still working and can be used in combination with a teletype and a program loader device that is based on magnetic bubble memory. These artifacts are examples of the aspirations to compete in a rapidly growing globalized market. The exhibition and the talk will also take a look at the history of the computing subsidiary of AEG-Telefunken, that was based in Konstanz, Germany. In addition, ideas and methods will be shown and discussed how vintage computers, for which almost no documentation can be found anymore, can be accessed and brought back to live by reverse engineering the power supply, the arithmetic unit and the programming of the time. Bernd Johann
Alan Touring did not only conceive the "Turing Machine" but has also designed the first real and freely programmable computer after the second world war, the "Automatic Computing Engine" (ACE). Turing’s design of 1945 was only realized in 1950 with a smaller pilot model, the "Pilot ACE". Nevertheless, with a clock rate of 1 MHz, it was the fastest computer worldwide at the time. The Pilot Ace was not only used as a technical test bed as originally planned, but also for large-scale aerodynamic calculations. In the following years, the "big" ACE was superseded by more modern computing and memory architectures. The exhibition will show the unusual architecture of the Pilot ACE: All data and program instructions are stored in ultrasound delay lines, which acted as main memory and registers. Essentially, there is only one program instruction, the transfer dataword instruction - which can execute all required computational or logic functions based on special source and destination addresses. As a result, it offers the capabilities of a universal von-Neumann architecture. The exhibition will show a shrunken but fully functional demonstator that can be used to experiment and discover all characteristics of the Pilot ACE. The "Tiny ACE" only uses discrete 74xx-logic chips, which helps to identify the ACE system architecture directly on the circuit board. The program and the data is stored in real rotating ultrasound memory which consists of acoustic delay lines of PAL TVs of the 1980s. These have proven to be so precise and stable to enable the circulation of data over hours. Jürgen Müller
This exhibition shows four newly-built vintage computers. The technology-demonstrator for the 4-bit tube computer SPACE AGE 3-V is a functional model of a part of the data path of this computer for the verification of the digital logic and the registers. Visitors can program and execute an addition instruction on this data path. The second vintage computer shown is the functional model of the SPACE AGE 3-T built with TTL-logic of the 4-bit tube based Space AGE 3-V. The model is built with 130 TTL chips and implements the functionality of a simple pocket calculator. Visitors can use the model to do their own calculations. Thirdly, the 8-bit TTL EDIC CPU will be shown. It is built from 120 TTL chips and has a well-arranged layout as it has been designed for educational purposes. In combination with a VT100 terminal, visitors can play "Snake" on this machine. The fourth object shown in the exhibition is the SPACE AGE 2, which consists of 800 TTL chips and now includes an Ethernet interface and email software. The device has a MIPS-1 compatible instruction set and visitors can send and receive emails on the system. Henry Westphal (TU Berlin and TIGRIS-Elektronik GmbH)
In this exhibition we will show a private digital telephony network and use it to communicate with modems, ISDN adapters and ISDN videophones of the 1980s and 1990s. The modems are connected to PCs and laptops of the times with corresponding software (terminal programs, point software, etc.) to demonstrate how Bulletin Board Systems (BBSes) and mailbox systems were accessed at the time. The collection is part of the "retronetworking" project which has been developed in the Osmocom (Open Source Mobile Communications) community to keep historic communication technology of many flavors alive. Harald Welte
Lisp is one of the oldest programming languages but nevertheless had high requirements for computers on which it could run. This is why Lisp programming was limited to a small community of developers at universities and research institutes which had the required systems. Due to its suitability for the processing of non-numerical problems, Lisp was particularly popular in the area of Artificial Intelligence. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) was a stronghold of Lisp development and a number of computers were designed there for the execution of Lisp programs. In the 1980s, these systems were then commercialized by a number of companies. The exhibition shows the Symbolics MacIvory II, which uses an Apple Macintosh II as a host system. Hans Hübner
Computers in the Soviet Union were used not only in nuclear plants, military bases and big government companies. In the 1980s, many different computers were created for home and educational use. They weren't compatible with each other, there was almost no "official" software, but computers became quite popular in the late 1980s. One of the most popular computers was the BK-0010, which is compatible with the PDP-11. It was widely used in education. Soviet people were using BK computers (BK-0010 and its successor BK-0011M) for many purposes. A lot of different software (ca. 1000 games, compilers, text and graphics editors, financial apps etc.) and many peripheral devices were created by enthusiasts. Those computers were in use until the 2000s, when they were completely replaced by modern PCs. But even now there is still a big BK community in Russian-speaking countries. People create new software and devices using modern technologies to emulate or make them compatible with BK computers. There are things made in 2022 working with the computer made in 1985! Eugene Bolshakoff
The exhibition shows working replicas based on original circuit designs and restored circuit boards of the first four Atari arcade machines: Pong, Space Race, Pong Doubles and Rebound. The hardware exclusively consists on basic circuits of binary information processing such as logic gates, binary counters, coders, decoders etc. but no computing technology. Interesting circuitry will be shown to demonstrate how impressive game features could be realized with limited hardware. Wolfgang Nake
The BBC Micro was a series of 8-bit computers from the early 1980s by Acorn Computers built to meet the specifications of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) for the BBC's Computer Literacy Project. The BBC Model B used a 6502 CPU and had 32kB of RAM. A floppy disk controller could be added as an optional upgrade that allowed the system to access 5,25" floppy disk drives. Many peripherals could be added to one of the many expansion ports available, the most common being floppy disk drives and printers. The system could be connected to most display types using its RF modulator for connecting to home television sets, composite video out and RGB video out. Graham Hooley
Computertechnik Müller GmbH (CTM), once based in Konstanz, Germany, was founded 50 years ago during the Hanover industrial fair in 1972. At the fair, the company created a stir with their new CTM70 system, a 16-bit mid-range computer system. The CTM70 family rapidly developed from a computer a core rope memory and a storage system based on magnet stripes on paper (CTM70/400 and /500) to a magnetic disc storage system (800) to a multi-seat system (900), which consisted of a central computer and up to 15 ‘intelligent’ workstations (BAP70). The family finally culminated in the ‘database computer’ CTM 9000. The ‘father’ of this system was Dr. h.c. Otto Müller, who unfortunately died 2 years ago. Dr. Müller effectively developed the system architecture and the core elements of the system on his own and created a masterpiece which, at the time, had unique properties and an excellent price/value proposition. At the 1978 Hanover industrial fair, i. e. 3 years before the introduction of the IBM-PC, CTM presented their CTM 70 TS 100 text system, which looks like a PC on the outside, with an integrated screen and two integrated 5.25” floppy disk drives. While initially presented as a dedicated text processing system, the later CTM 650 version was offered as a ‘freely programmable’ device for commercial applications. While only few working CTM70 systems still exist, the author has used the Corona times and has restored a TS 100 to a working condition in his hobby cellar. A Raspberry Pi is now used to connect the TS 100 to today’s IT infrastructure. A floppy emulator will be shown, which the TS 100 (i. e. the CTM 650) uses to get its software and data. This bridge also allows to rescue the contents of old floppy disks to current storage media. The interface additionally includes a ‘sniffer’ that reads and visualizes the data that is read and written from and to the virtual floppy disc devices. The interface is also used to run a monitor program, which runs in parallel to the operating system and the applications. And finally, interested visitors can play Pong/2 on the system, an interactive video game, which is based on 88 CTM70 micro commands. Christfried Welke
In 1982, GRiD systems corporation presented the first clamshell shaped laptop, the GRiD Compass. Designed by an English designer, it consisted of components which were quite expensive at the time: A magnesium casing, electroluminescent flat panel display, 8086 processor, bubble memory, and a dedicated OS, GRiD-OS. A GPIB-interface was used to connect external storage media. Due to its robustness the computer was used foremost by NASA and the military. The exhibition will show such a computer and a number of successors, such as the GridPad Convertible, a mobile computer with a pen input. Thomas Falk
The Cerberus 2080 is a computer kit very much in the style of 1980s home computers. The extraordinary feature of the Cerberus 2080 are the three built-in CPUs: WDC 65c02, Z80 and an Atmel AVR. The design and the firmware are 100% open source and can be found on GitHub (https://github.com/TheByteAttic/CERBERUS2080). The exhibition will show applications and programming languages (e. g. Forth). Carsten Strotmann
Starting in 1982, the Atari 800XL, like a number of other home computers, not only became a very popular accessory in rooms of teenage computer enthusiasts, but also found its way to small offices. In the US, the computer was already popular in 1982 in small offices and labs for word processing and spreadsheet applications. Even its predecessor, the Atari 800, was already advertised for such applications. Atari is, however, also the company behind arcade hall hits such as the well known Pac-Man, Missile Command, Centipede, Space Invaders game, which are still captivating and fun to play today. It was therefore a great delight that these games could now also be played at home. At the time, the 800XL was quite expensive and cost around 1.049 DM (German marks). The disk drive cost another 720 DM and ten empty 5.25” floppy discs cost another 80 DM. The exhibition will show the complete computer setup I had at home in 1982, including the Atari 800XL, printer, data recorder, acoustic coupler, disk drives, orange telephone and more. Frank Pfuhl.
50 years ago, Otto Müller was discontented that nobody seemed to be interested to implement his 16-bit computer design. With the money earned with a computer design commissioned by Triumph-Adler, the 8-bit TA 1000 computer, he then founded Computertechnik Müller (CTM) in 1972. This started a technological but not always economical success story. Spanning two technical generations (TTL and microprocessors), CTM maintained the luxury of developing its own operating system ITOS. The exhibition will show a smaller CTM computer installation, the MC68000-based CTM 9016 with a second workstation. These can be used to experience office oriented software such as a word processing system and a financial accounting system, and also dive into the CTM macro programming system, which was used to develop the aforementioned software. The computer is supported by the MFM hard drive emulator by David Gesswein. Rainer Siebert
Replica of Wilhelm Schickard’s calculating machine of 1623 with a laser cutter. Additional information will follow. Jügen Weigert
We want to revive two 30 year old computers of the University of Erlangen. FrameMaker should be usable on the LX, and the Indy should run Buttonfly and Inventor. Additional information will follow. Jürgen Weigert and Thomas Gebert
Starting in 1982, Digital Equipment Corporation’s (DEC) RA81 hard drive with a capacity of 456 MB was a successful product in combination with VAX computers. The exhibition will show two drives and handling, operation and innards. Klaus Kämpf
A showcase of interesting and sometimes forgotten computers from the 1980s. Many computers presented only lasted a few months on overstuffed computer shelves in the 1980s. A few persisted for years in various niche markets. The 1980s spanned from early single-board computers with less memory than required to store this webpage to strong systems able to play symphonies. Here are but a few. Richard Eseke
In his memoirs, Kontrad Zuse describes a 2-bit adder. A few years ago, a working functional model has been re-created on a wooden board, which can be used to understand its function. Klemens Krause
At the autumn fair in 1961, the German Democratic Republic (GDR) presented an office computer the size of an office desk for the first time. This exhibition shows a configuration of the SER2B with a corresponding SE5L paper tape reader in working condition. The arrangement of the functional keyboard, the output unit, the status board and the paper tape reader gives the impression of sitting in front of a real SER2B. The model is driven by a sequential single address computer, which connects several different components, such as an LC-80 and several Arduino controllers. This way, its operation, functions and programming can once again be experienced. Despite its very limited instruction set, the SER2B could be used for comprehensive scientific and technical calculations. This is shown with examples contained in the original documents from 1964. The model will also be used during the exhibition to show several demo programs, to demonstrate the flow of data through the arithmetic unit and visitors can create small programs on paper tape. The overarching idea of the exhibit is to let technology of different epochs of computer history interact and hence perhaps tell an alternative technical history. Andreas Richter
Since 2015 we organize monthly Amiga meetings in the rooms of IN-Berlin, always the last Saturday of the month, starting at 3 pm. In 2022 a general (non-Amiga) retro meeting was added, which is always held on Saturdays 2 weeks before the Amiga meeting at 3 pm. As part of the Makerspaces berlinCreators (previously: eLAB), new and old computers are repaired in our workshop, and we help with the setup and troubleshooting. Additionally, we are showing new and old demos on the big screen. As the meetings usually last until late at night, we typically eat together, usually Pizza and Finger-Food. Every now and then we also live stream demos and web cams of the rooms. BerlinCreators e.V.
Computers have never been silent. From the first clacking relay computers to early tube computers with drum memory and punch card readers to the systems cooled by fans and armed with teletypes of the mainframe and minicomputer eras, computer rooms and data centres have been filled with noises. Acoustic output interfaces were added to these as early as the 1950s to intentionally output sounds. But both the ancillary noises and the sound outputs were used from the beginning by creative users to produce music. From the microcomputer age, when square waves of any frequency could be generated and sounds synthesised in a variety of ways by sound processors and cards, the production of computer music has dramatically improved in quality and quantity. In our special exhibition, we want to present and exhibit as many computers for, and methods of, sound production as possible: From the minicomputer that emits sonorous noise via a radio to the floppy disk drive whose motor can be used as a rhythm instrument; from the home computer that is used as a synthesiser to the video game that is controlled via drums.